Versitron Fiber Optic Modem Manuals Resource

 

S71090

10/100/1000 Modular Switch

Installation Guide



See Technical Data Sheet

Download Manual PDF

www.versitron.com



Revision B

Copyright June 2004

VERSITRON, Inc.

83 Albe Drive / Suite C

Newark, DE 19702

 

The information contained in this document is subject to change without prior notice.

Copyright VERSITRON. All Rights Reserved.

TRADEMARKS

All brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

WARNING:

This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual may cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

NOTICE:

(1) The changes or modifications not expressively approved by the party responsible for Compliance could void the user authority to operate the equipment.

(2) Shielded interface cables and AC power cord, if any, must be used in order to comply with the emission limits.

CISPR A COMPLIANCE:

This device complies with EMC directive of the European Community and meets or exceeds the following technical standard.

EN 55022 - Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Interference Characteristics of Information Technology Equipment. This device complies with CISPR Class A.

WARNING: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.

CE NOTICE

Marking by the symbol indicates compliance of this equipment to the EMC directive of the European Community. Such marking is indicative that this equipment meets or exceeds the following technical standards:

EN 55022: Limits and Methods of Measurement of Radio Interference characteristics of Information Technology Equipment.

EN 50082/1:Generic Immunity Standard -Part 1: Domestic Commercial and Light Industry.

EN 60555-2: Disturbances in supply systems caused by household appliances and similar electrical equipment - Part 2: Harmonics.

 

 

PROPRIETARY DATA

All data in this manual is proprietary and may not be disclosed,

used or duplicated, for procurement or manufacturing purposes,

without prior written permission by VERSITRON, Inc.

WARRANTY

All VERSITRON products purchased after January 2001 carry a limited lifetime warranty against defects in material and workmanship. Purchases made prior to January 2001 are warranted for a period of one year from date of delivery. VERSITRON reserves the right to repair or, at our option, replace parts which during normal usage prove to be defective during the warranty period provide that:

1. You call VERSITRON at 302-894-0699 or 800-537-2296 and obtain a Return Maintenance Authorization (RMA) Number. Please reference your RMA number on the outside of the box in which the item is shipped.

2. Shipping charges are pre-paid.

No other warranty is expressed or implied and we are not liable for consequential damages. For repairs outside of the warranty period, the same procedure must be followed.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.1 Package Contents

1.2 Installation Procedure

Chapter 2 - Installing the Switch

2.1 Placing the Intelligent Switch on a Desk or Shelf

2.2 Mounting the Intelligent Switch on a Rack

Chapter 3 - Configuring the Switch

3.1 Introduction

(1) Overview

(2) Manage the Switch

3.2 Configure the Switch by Console

3.2.1 Logging on to the Intelligent Switch

3.2.2 Performing Basic Management Activities

General

LANPort

Console Port

3.2.3 Performing Advanced Management Activities

L2 Switching DataBase:

VLAN & PVID Perspective

IP Multicast Group Perspective

MAC Address Perspective

Port Perspective

IP Networking:

IP & RIP Setting

ARP Table

Routing Table

DHCP Gateway Setting

Ping

Bridging

Static Filtering

Spanning Tree

Spanning Tree Configurations

Spanning Tree Port Status

Spanning Tree Path Cost

Spanning Tree Port Priorities

SNMP

Other Protocols

Port Trunking

Port Mirroring

QoS Setup

Global Setting

Logical Port

VLAN

ToS

Profile

Port Configuration

Rate Control

File Transfer

3.2.4 Other Functions in the Main Menu

Logout

Save Setting

Restore Default Settings

Reboot

3.3 Configure the Intelligent Switch by Web Browser

3.3.1 Logging on to the Intelligent Switch

3.3.2 Performing Basic Management Activities

3.3.3 Performing Advanced Management Activities

3.3.4 File Transfer, Reboot, Logout and Save Setting

 

Chapter 4 - SNMP and RMON Management

4.1 Overview

4.2 SNMP Agent and MIB-2 (RFC 1213)

4.3 RMON MIB (RFC 1757) and Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)

4.3.1 RMON Group Supported

4.3.2 Bridge Group Supported

Chapter 5 - Configuring the Network Connection

5.1 Connecting Devices to the Intelligent Switch

5.2 Trunking to Another Ethernet Switch

5.3 Connecting to Another Ethernet Switch/Hub (Non-Trunking)

5.4 Application

Chapter 6 - LED Conditions Defined

6.1 Intelligent Switch LEDs

Chapter 7 - Add/Remove Module

7.1 For Non-Fully Modularized Models

7.2 For Fully Modularized Models

Chapter 8 - FAQ

8.1 Frequently Asked Questions

A. Product Features/Specifications

B. Compliance

 

Chapter 1
Introduction

The Intelligent Switch is a high performance Ethernet / Fast Ethernet NWay auto-negotiation switch with SNMP/RMON web-based management function. From a departmental backbone managing lower-level switches, hubs and workstations to high-speed switch-to-switch and switch-to-server links, this Intelligent Switch delivers outstanding performance in every environment. With IGMP and VLAN functions, this Intelligent Switch ensures maximum bandwidth by reducing multicast transmissions and distributing data over the most efficient media and pathway. With Quality of Service (QoS) supports, this Intelligent Switch provides the capability to prioritize certain tasks on the network and this is particularly useful for sending voice or video over the switched network. This Intelligent Switch is a powerful management Ethernet switch for network administrators.

1.1 Package Contents

  • One Intelligent Switch
  • One AC power cord
  • Two rack-mount kits and screws
  • This installation guide
  • One console cable

1.2 Installation Procedure

 

Chapter 2
Installing the Switch

The Intelligent Switch can be placed on a flat surface (your desk, shelf or table) or mounted into a rack. Place the Intelligent Switch at a location with these connection considerations in mind:

  • The switch configuration does not break the rules as specified in Chapter 5.
  • The switch is accessible and cables can be easily connected.
  • The cables connected to the switch are away from sources of electrical interference such as radio, computer monitors, and light fixtures.
  • There is sufficient space to allow for proper ventilation (the switch may not function according to specifications beyond the temperature range of 0 to 50 degrees C).

2.1 Placing the Intelligent Switch on a Desk or Shelf

  1. Place the Intelligent Switch on a firm flat surface where you want to install the switch.
  2. If you want to configure the Intelligent Switch, please refer to Section 3.
  3. Connect network cables to the Intelligent Switch. Please refer to Section 5 for network connection.

2.2 Mounting the Intelligent Switch into a Rack

  1. Use the brackets and screws supplied in the rack mounting kit.
  2. Use a cross-head screwdriver to attach the brackets to the side of the Intelligent Switch.
  3. Position the Intelligent Switch in the rack by lining up the holes in the brackets with the appropriate holes on the rack, and then use the supplied screws to mount the switch into the standard EIA 19-inch rack.


Chapter 3
Configuring the Switch

3.1 Introduction

[1] Overview

The Intelligent Switch provides a user-friendly, menu-driven console interface. Using this interface, you can perform switch configuration and management activities, including:

  • Configuring system and port parameters.
  • Assigning an IP address.
  • Configuring ARP.
  • Configuring DHCP relay.
  • Setting up VLAN policy.
  • Setting up packet filters.
  • Configuring STP and SNMP parameters.
  • Upgrading software.

[2] Manage the switch

There are three ways to manage the Intelligent Switch:

  • Local Console Management via the Intelligent Switch serial port.
  • Remote Console Management via a network connection.
  • Using an SNMP Network Management Station.

1. Local Console Management

You can manage the Intelligent Switch locally by connecting a VT100 terminal, a personal computer, or a workstation with terminal emulation software to the Intelligent Switch serial port. The terminal or workstation connects to the Intelligent Switch serial port using a console cable that has the appropriate connectors on each end. This management method is ideal when:

  • The network is unreliable.
  • The switch has not been assigned an IP address.
  • The Network Manager does not have a direct network connection.

The default setting of the Intelligent Switch's serial port is [Baud Rate: 115200, Data Bits: 8, Parity Bits: None, Stop Bit: 1, Flow Control: None]. Therefore, configure the terminal or workstation to use these settings before you log on to the Intelligent Switch. You can change this default setting, if desired, after you log on.

2. Remote Management

You can manage the Intelligent Switch remotely by having a remote host establish a Telnet connection to the Intelligent Switch via an Ethernet or modem link. When using this management method the Intelligent Switch must have an IP address. The Remote Console Management interface is identical in appearance and functionality to the Local Console Management interface described in the previous section.

You can manage the Intelligent Switch from a remote site across a LAN using

  • SNMP Network Management Station
  • Web Browser interface
  • Telnet program

This management method lets you monitor statistical counters and set switch parameters from the remote Network Management Station. Using this management method:

  • The network must run the IP protocol.
  • The Intelligent Switch must have an IP address.

 

 

3. Assigning an IP Address to the Intelligent Switch


To manage the Intelligent Switch remotely through the console port or with an SNMP Management Station, you must assign an IP address to the Intelligent Switch. You assign the IP address through the IP Settings screen. This procedure is described in the next section. Please refer to the "Advanced Management" function in the Local Console Management interface to set the IP address. We recommend you assign an IP address to the default VLAN (VLAN ID = 1) for Remote Console Management and SNMP Network Management.

4. Logging on to the Intelligent Switch


When you log on to the Intelligent Switch console port for the first time, a sign-on string appears and you are prompted for a console login name and password. The factory default login name is admin and the password is 123456. If you desire, you can change this password after you log on but only with the use of letters and numbers. Symbols such as &, @, #, etc. will not work in the password.

3.2 Configure the Switch by Console

The Intelligent Switch provides a menu-driven console interface for configuration purposes. The switch can be configured either locally through its console port or remotely via a Telnet/Http/SNMP session. (The settings will take effect immediately. If you want to save them, please select "Save Settings" before leaving the setup.)

3.2.1 Logging on to the Intelligent Switch

At the screen prompt:
Enter the console interface factory default console name "admin" and password "123456" or user-defined password if you changed the default password. The Switch Management screen will appear.

When operating in the console interface keyboard directions are as follows:
Move the highlight up - Up-arrow or K
Move the highlight down - Down-arrow or J
Move the highlight between screens - Tab
Select the highlight option - Enter
Move to the previous menu - Esc

Operation Notes


1. In the operation of the console configuration/management, you have to highlight the item and press Enter if you want to select or change it.
2. For some terminal programs, the "Up-arrow" and "Down-arrow" can not be used to move the cursor bar. In this situation, please use key "K" and "J" instead.
3. Only one console and three telnet users can log on to the Intelligent Switch concurrently. However, it is not recommended that multiple users modify the configuration at the same time.

Here is a quick reference chart of settings:

Map of Functions in Menu

Basic Management

General

System Name, Software Version, Password, Http Enable/Disable, . . .

LAN Port

Port Physical Configuration, Mac ID

Console Port

Console Port Settings

Advanced Management

L2 Switching Database

VLAN & PVID Perspective

VLAN Settings / Status

IP Multicast Group Perspective

IP Multicast Groups Operation Status

Mac Address Perspective

Mac ID Activity in the switch

Port Perspective

Port Status/Statistics, Mac Limit Setting

IP Networking

IP Address, ARP Table, Routing Table, DHCP Gateway, Ping

Bridging

Aging Time, Flooding Limit

Static Filtering

Static Mac ID Filter-in, Filter-out

Spanning Tree

Spanning Tree Status / Configuration

SNMP

SNMP Configuration

Other Protocols

GVRP / IGMP Protocols Enable/Disable.

Port Trunking

Port Trunking Configuration

Port Mirroring

Port Mirroring Setting

QoS Setup

Configure the QoS operation of the switch.

  • Enable / Disable
  • Transmit priority / Drop priority mapping and configuration
  • Frame Scheduling configuration with profile setting.
  • Rate Control

File Transfer

Software / Firmware upload & download

Logout Logout of the management interface.
Save Settings Save current settings.
Restore Default Settings Restore the factory default settings.
Reboot Reboot the switch.

 

3.2.2 Performing Basic Management Activities

Basic management activities consist of General, LAN port, and Console port tasks. To perform basic management activities:
1. Select "Basic Management" and the function table will appear in the screen.
2. Select a function and press Enter.

Menu Description

Description

General For system general information and settings
LAN Port 1. For LAN port configuration and connection status
  2. Get Mac address of the switch
Console Port For console port configuration and settings
  • General

Lets you change the system name, location, administration/guest passwords, statistics collection, reboot-on-error, and remote Telnet login and other system settings.

There is some system information in this management activity. You can change the following items:
1. System Name: Name of the system.
2. Location: Location of the system.
3. Administration Password: You have to enter the old password first before changing the administration password. The system will ask user to re-type the new password after the new password has been entered. If the new password has been confirmed by the system, the "Password changed" message appears. Please press "Enter" to remove the message and return to the General screen. Otherwise, there must be an error with the entry of the new password and the new password did not take effect. Please repeat this procedure to change the password.
4. Guest Password: Change the password of "Guest" account.
5. Statistic Collection: Enable or disable the statistic collection to the Intelligent Switch.
6. Reboot-On-Error: If it is enabled in this option, the Intelligent Switch will automatically reset when a fatal error is detected.
7. Telnet Login: Enable or disable remote Telnet logins to the Switch.
8. Remote HTTP Login: Enable or disable remote HTTP login function.

  • LAN Port

Lets you configure speed and flow control, link type, and physical address.
You can change the connection configuration on each port of the Intelligent Switch with this option.

1. Speed & Flow Control: User can change the connection speed (10Mbps or 100Mbps), full duplex mode or half-duplex mode, and the flow control function on each connection port with this function.

! Notes: If there are 100BaseFX ports on the switch then set the operation speed and operation mode of the FX ports to 100Mbps, Full Duplex. The FX ports will fail to work if they are set to 10Mbps or half-duplex or Auto.
2. Physical Address: This function can display the physical port address.

  • Console Port

Lets you change the console baud rate, flow control method, modem control, and setup string; enable or disable SLIP; and configure the SLIP address and SLIP subnet mask.

1. Baud Rate: Select the baud rate of the Intelligent Switch console port. If the "Auto" option is selected, press the "Enter" key one or more times until the prompt of the Intelligent Switch Login Password appears on your computer screen when you exit the configuration program.
2. Flow Control: Select the flow control method of the Intelligent Switch console port.
3. Modem Control: Enable or disable the modem control function on the Intelligent Switch console port. If the modem control function is enabled, proceed to "Specify a Modem Setup String" to specify the appropriate modem setup string.
4. Modem Setup String: If you enable a modem connection to the console port, use this function to specify a modem setup string. You can select the "Default Setup String" and that will configure the modem to auto answer. This works for all Hayes compatible modems. Or, you may select the "Custom Setup String" to specify the modem initializing string yourself.
5. SLIP: Enable or disable the SLIP function of the Intelligent Switch console port. If you enable SLIP, a message tells you that the console port becomes accessible only through the SLIP protocol after you logout from the current console screen. If you enable SLIP, please also specify a SLIP address and SLIP subnet mask.
6. SLIP Address: If you enabled SLIP, use this function to enter an address that has a network port different than the network address of the Intelligent Switch. (For more information, contact your network administrator.)
7. SLIP Subnet Mask: When using SLIP, enter a SLIP subnet mask with this function.

3.2.3 Performing Advanced Management Activities

Advanced management activities consist of the L2 switching database, L3 IP networking, bridging, static filtering, spanning tree, SNMP, other protocols (GVRP and IGMP), port trunking, port mirroring, and software upgrade. To perform advanced management activities:
1. Select "Advanced Management" and the following screen will appear.



2. Select a function and press Enter.

Menu

Description

L2 Switching DataBase

1. VLAN & PVID setting, VLAN activity status
2. IP multicast group activity status
3. Mac addresses activity status
4. Statistics on port, VLAN activity on port and Mac address learning configuration on port

IP Networking

1. IP address and RIP configuration of the switch
2. ARP Table of the switch
3. Routing Table of the switch
4. DHCP Gateway setting
5. Ping operation

Bridging

1. Aging Time setting
2. Flooding Control setting

Static Filtering 1. Static Filter-out Mac Address (DA or SA)
2. Static Filter-in Mac Address (SA) on port
Spanning Tree Spanning Tree Configuration on Switch / Ports
SNMP SNMP Configuration of the switch
Other Protocols Enable/Disable IGMP and GVRP protocols
Port Trunking Configure Port Trunking for Trunking Connection
Port Mirroring Port Mirroring Configuration
QoS Setup Configure the QoS operation of the switch
File Transfer For Software upload/download operation
  • L2 Switching DataBase

Lets you view and configure the switch from VLAN, MAC address, IP multicast group, and port perspectives. If you select L2 Switching DataBase from the Advanced Management screen, the screen will appear.
The Intelligent Switch can be viewed from the four perspectives in the L2 Switching DataBase screen. These four views allow a network administrator to manage and monitor VLANs and their associated MAC addresses and ports status effectively.

  • VLAN & PVID Perspective

If you select "VLAN & PVID Perspective", this screen will appear.
You can select "VLAN Settings" to create VLAN groups first. Then use "PVID Settings" function to assign VLAN ID to ports for untagged packets.

* Default VLAN: The IEEE 802.1Q standard defines VLAN ID #1 as the default VLAN. The default VLAN includes all the ports as the factory default. The default VLAN's egress rule restricts the ports to be all untagged, so it can, by default be easily used as a simple 802.1D bridging domain. The default VLAN's domain shrinks as untagged ports are defined in other VLANs.

* Tagged/Untagged Port: Tag is a four bytes packet information added in a packet for VLAN and priority information of the packet. We call the packets with tag as tagged packets and the packets without tag as untagged packets. For the ports on the switch, we also set them as tagged or untagged port when we configure the VLAN.
Untagged ports should be connected to untagged devices. The network administrator should assign the PVID (Port VLAN ID) to these ports as their VLAN ID. If untagged packets are forwarded to tagged ports then tags will be added to the packets with the PVID as their VLAN ID in the tag.
Tagged ports should be connected to tagged devices. If these tagged packets are forwarded to untagged ports, the tag will be removed from the packets.

If "VLAN Settings" is selected, the following screen will appear.

You can perform the following operations from this screen.
1. Create a new VLAN
2. Delete a VLAN
3. View VLAN activity
4. View and change VLAN configuration

1. Create a new VLAN
a). Use "+" (Shift key & + key) to add a VLAN. Move the highlight and press Enter to assign VLAN ID and VLAN name to the new VLAN. The ID is a 12-bit decimal or hexadecimal ID value. (Notes: "Remote" will be appended to the VLAN ID automatically if the VLAN is learned from a remote switch.)

b). After a new VLAN is created, you can add switching ports to the VLAN in the following screen.

Use "+" (Shift key & + key) to add a switch port to the VLAN. Select Tagged or Untagged port first. Then select the port number. Repeat these steps to add switch ports to the VLAN.
To delete a switch port in the screen, highlight the port and press "-" (- key) to remove the port from the VLAN.

2. Delete a VLAN
Highlight the VLAN you want to delete and press "-" (- key). A message will ask whether you are sure you want to delete the VLAN ID. Select "Yes" and the VLAN will be deleted.

3. View VLAN activities
The following procedure describes how to use the VLAN Perspective screen to view activities for a particular VLAN. Using this procedure, you can view active ports, active MAC addresses associated with a VLAN, a transient address (if any), filtering and port information.

a). Highlight an existing VLAN and press Enter. Then select the "VLAN Activities". The screen will appear. These screens show all active MAC addresses and VLAN domains for the VLAN you selected. MAC addresses are those that have been sending frames from this VLAN to the switch within the last aging period. VLAN domain shows the domains in this VLAN from which active MAC addresses have been learned within the last aging period. You can use the Tab key to move between the MAC Addresses and VLAN Domain screens.
b). In the MAC addresses Screen . . .
Searching for MAC Addresses:
In the VLAN MAC Address screen, press S. The "Enter MAC Addr To Search" screen appears. Enter a MAC address in the "Enter MAC Addr To Search" screen and press the Enter key. If the address is found, it is highlighted in the MAC Addresses screen.
Obtaining Additional Information:
To obtain additional information about an active MAC address, you can scroll to the address about which you want more information in the MAC Addresses screen. Press the Enter key. A VLAN/IP Multicast Group Membership screen will appear.
c). In the VLAN domain Screen . . .
When the VLAN Domain screen is active, you can use the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys to scroll through the list of domains associated with the selected VLAN.

4. View or change a VLAN configuration

a). Highlight an existing VLAN and press Enter. Then select "VLAN Settings". The following screen will appear.


b). To add ports to VLAN, use "+" (Shift key & + key) to add a switch port to the VLAN. Select Tagged or Untagged port first. Then select the port number. Repeat these steps to add switch ports to the VLAN.
c). To delete ports from VLAN, highlight the port and press "-" (- key) to remove the port from the VLAN. Repeat these steps to remove switch ports from the VLAN.
After you complete the VLAN setting, you can go to the "PVID Settings" function to assign PVID to connection ports. Because there is no VLAN information in untagged packets for untagged ports, you can assign VLAN ID to untagged ports with this function. But this is not necessary for tagged ports because there is already VLAN information in the packets. (Tagged ports only for tagged network devices only. Don't use tagged ports for untagged devices.)

  • IP Multicast Group Perspective

The IP multicast group perspective provides information associated with an IP multicast group. To obtain an IP multicast group perspective:
a). Highlight "IP Multicast Group Perspective" and press the Enter key. The following screen appears.


Note: If the IGMP protocol is disabled then following screen will appear.


Enable the IGMP protocol in "Other Protocols" function of the "Advanced Management" first because the IP multicast groups are generated from the IGMP snooping operation of the switch.
b). To obtain an IP multicast group perspective for one of the addresses in the screen, highlight an address and press the Enter key.

c). To view the VLAN and IP multicast group addresses associated with the MAC address highlight a host in the Hosts screen and press Enter. A VLAN/IP Multicast Group Membership screen will appear.

  • MAC Address Perspective

 

The MAC address perspective lets you view all characteristics associated with a MAC address, corresponding VLANs and ports in the switching database. To obtain a MAC address perspective . . .

a). Highlight "MAC Address Perspective" and press Enter key. You are prompted for a MAC address. Enter the MAC address whose characteristics, corresponding VLANs, and corresponding ports you want to view. Then press Enter and a screen similar to this one appears.

b). Use the Up and Down Arrow keys to scroll through the VLAN/IP Multicast Group Membership screen.

  • Port Perspective

The port perspective lets you view VLAN activities and RMON statistics. You can also configure the Mac address learning function of each port from this function. To obtain a port perspective, highlight "Port Perspective" and press the Enter key. The Port Perspective screen appears.

1). Per Port VLAN Activities
If you select Per Port VLAN Activities from the Port Perspective screen, a screen similar to the Per Port VLAN Activities appears.

 

a). Highlight the port number whose corresponding VLANs activities you want to view. Press the Enter key. A screen with a list of the MAC addresses for the selected VLAN and the corresponding VLAN memberships will appear.
b). Use Tab key to switch to the MAC Addresses screen if it is not the current screen. Use the Up or Down Arrow key to scroll through the list of active MAC addresses for the selected port.
c). To search for a MAC address, press S. When the search prompt appears, enter a MAC address in the "Enter MAC Addr to Search" screen and press the Enter key. If the address is found, it is highlighted in the "Port MAC Addresses" screen.
d). To obtain additional information about a particular MAC address, scroll to the address in the "Port MAC Address" screen and press Enter key. The following screen appears, showing detailed information about the selected MAC address.

2). Per Port Statistics
If you select Per Port Statistics from the Port Perspective screen, you can also get a port list screen.
a). To reset counters for all ports, press R. Then select Yes in the confirm screen to reset the counters. Or, select No to not reset them.
b). To view statistics for a port, highlight the desired port and press the Enter key. A screen similar to this one appears, showing the statistics for the port you selected.
c). To reset counters for the port in the screen above, press R. Then select Yes in the confirm screen to reset the counters.

3). Per Port MAC Limit
You can configure the Mac address learning function of each port to
1. Limited Learning, or
2. Unlimited Learning, or
3. No Learning
with this function for "Mac address limit" application on each port. If you select this function, the screen will appear.

Then highlight the port number and press Enter. The following screen will appear.

a). Set Learning Limit: You can set a number to limit the number of PCs that can share this connection at the same time.
b). Unlimited Learning: You can remove the PC connecting number limit if you select this item. The PC connecting number on the port will become no limit. (It’s the normal state of a normal switch.)
c). No MAC Learning: You can disable the MAC learning function on this port if you select this item. The MAC addresses that can connect to this port will be assigned by the operator from the “Static Filtering” function.

The "Set Learning Limit" function can set a limit on the number of PCs that can share this connection. The "No MAC Learning" function can set a static Mac address table (manual assigned) to allow only those PCs to use this connection. This function allows the network administrator or the service provider to limit the users that can access the network through the connected ports. "No MAC Learning" is a static user limit function - only those Mac addresses are allowed. "Set Learning Limit" is a dynamic user number limit function – any Mac addresses in the limited number are allowed to access the network through the ports.

Note: If you select "Set Learning Limit" on the connection port and also assign MAC addresses on the port in the "MAC Address In-Filters" of Static Filtering function, these MAC addresses will always be allowed to use this connection and are not included in the limit number of the PC.

  • IP Networking

 

Lets you view or change IP settings, ARP and routing table parameters, RIP parameters, DHCP gateway settings, and ping settings. If you select IP Networking from the Advanced Management screen, the IP Networking screen appears.
  • IP & RIP Setting

If you select IP & RIP Settings from the "IP Networking" screen, an "IP Settings" screen similar to the following appears, with a list of the VLAN IDs, IP addresses, subnet masks, and frame types currently defined.

Notes: Before you can define a VLAN's IP settings, you must first create a VLAN as described in the "VLAN Perspective" of "L2 Switching DataBase".
To modify the settings shown:
a). Highlight the row that contains the parameters you want to change, then press Enter. The following screen appears.
b). Review the settings. To change a setting, highlight it, press the Enter key, select the desired setting, and press Esc.
c). To delete a setting, highlight the setting and press the "-" key. Then select Yes in the confirm screen to delete it.

Notes:
1. The IP and its subnet setting of the switch are assigned based on VLAN.
2. This switch allows a user to assign a different IP subnet on different VLANs.
3. The RIP operation of the switch is for internal routing between the IP subnet assigned on different VLANs. It is not a real L3 switch routing operation.
4. Most cases allow assigning the switch’s IP address on the default VLAN for remote management.
5. If you want the switch to get IP from the DHCP server then set “BOOTP” item to DHCP.

  • ARP Table

If you select ARP Table from the "IP Networking" screen, an ARP Table screen appears with the ARP table entries that have already been defined or learned.


You can add, delete and search static entries in the ARP table in the screen.

1). Adding static entries to the ARP table:
a). From the ARP Table screen, hold down the Shift key and press +. The Static ARP Specifications screen appears.
b). Highlight the Internet Address and press Enter. An "Enter Internet Address" screen will appear.
c). Type an Internet address (IP address). When you finish, press Enter. The Internet address you typed appears next to Internet Address in the Static ARP Specifications screen.
d). Highlight the Physical Address and press Enter. An "Enter Physical Address" screen will appear.
e). Type the corresponding physical address and press Enter. The physical address you typed appears next to Physical Address in the Static ARP Specifications screen.
f). Press Esc. The Internet and physical addresses you typed appear in the ARP Table screen.
g). To add more static ARP table entries, repeat these steps. When you finish, press Esc to return to the ARP Table screen.

2). Deleting Static ARP Table Entries:
If you no longer need a static entry in the ARP table, use the following procedure to delete it. There is no precautionary message that appears before you delete a static ARP table entry. Therefore, be sure you want to delete the entry before doing so.
- Highlight the ARP entry that you want to delete and press "-". The entry will be deleted.

3). Searching for ARP Table Entries:
a). From the ARP Table screen, press S. The Search Options screen prompts you to select an Internet Address or a Physical Address.
b). Select the "Internet Address" or "Physical Address" and then enter the IP or physical address you are searching and press Enter. The address you want to view is highlighted.

Note: The ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) table is a mapping table of the IP address and its Ethernet Mac addresses. The ARP table in the switch is similar to the ARP table in a PC.

  • Routing Table

If you select Routing Table from the IP Networking screen, a Routing Table screen appears.


The Routing Table allows you to view, add, delete, or search a particular routing path. The following table identifies the columns in this screen.

Item

Description

Network

The IP sub-network address to which the switch can route packets.

Mask

The related IP sub-network mask to which the switch can route packets.

Gateway

The IP address of the router at the next hop.

Metric

The number of hops needed between the switch and the destination network.

VLAN

The VLAN within which the gateway or destination resides.

Type

The IP route type for the IP subnetwork. There are six IP route types:
Direct - A directly connected subnetwork.
Remote - A remote IP subnetwork or host address.
Myself - A switch IP address on a specific IP subnetwork.
Bcast - A subnetwork broadcast address.
Mcast - An IP multicast address.
Martian - An illegal IP address to be filtered.

Protocol

Local - A manually configured routing entry.
NetMgmt - A routing entry set via SNMP.
ICMP - A routing entry obtained via ICMP redirect.
RIP - A routing entry learned via the RIP protocol.
Other - A protocol other than one of the other four listed above.

1). Adding Routing Table Entries:
a). From the Routing Table screen, hold down the Shift key and press +. The "Route Options" screen appears. Select "Default Gateway" or "Static Route" and press Enter.
b). If you select "Default Gateway", the following screen appears. Press Enter and type an IP address for the default gateway.

c). If you select "Static Route", the following screen appears. At each field, press Enter, type the appropriate parameter, and press Enter again.
2). Deleting Routing Table Entries:
If you no longer need an entry in the routing table, use the following procedure to delete it. There is no precautionary message that appears before you delete an entry in the routing table. Therefore, be sure you want to delete the entry before doing so.
- Highlight the Routing table entry you want to delete and press "-". The entry will be deleted.
3). Searching for Routing Table Entries:
To search for entries in the Routing table, press S in the Routing Table screen. The "Enter Network Address" screen appears. Type the network address you want to search for, then press Enter.

Note: You can assign the gateway IP address of the switch with the “Default Gateway” in the Adding Routing Table Entries operation for management through the Internet.

  • DHCP Gateway Setting

If you highlight DHCP Gateway Settings from the "IP Networking" screen and press the Enter key, a DHCP Gateway Settings screen appears.
In this screen:

- VLAN ID shows the IDs of the VLANs that have been defined.
- IP Address shows the corresponding IP addresses of the VLANs.
- DHCP Relay shows whether the DHCP relay is enabled or disabled.
- Max Hops shows the maximum number of hops that a DHCP request broadcast can be relayed along the DHCP relay path from the DHCP client to the DHCP server.
- Delay shows the number of seconds that must elapse before a DHCP request broadcast is relayed to the next IP subnetwork.
- Servers shows any preferred servers that have been defined.
- Relays shows the outbound IP subnetwork for relaying a DHCP request broadcast.

Notes: To specify DHCP gateway settings, you must first create a VLAN with an assigned IP address as described in "VLAN Perspective" of "L2 Switching DataBase".

The following procedure describes how to change the DHCP gateway settings. As part of this procedure, you can specify up to three preferred servers and/or an outbound relay interface.

a). Highlight the appropriate VLAN ID and press Enter. A screen similar to the following appears.

b). To add a relay IP, hold down the Shift key and press +. A setup screen will appear. Highlight the appropriate interface and press Enter.
c). You can enable/disable DHCP Gateway, set Maximum Hops number, set the Delay time (in seconds) and specify up to three more preferred servers in the screen. Please move the highlight and press Enter to setup these items.

This DHCP relay function allows the DHCP request to be routed to the DHCP server when it is in a different IP subnet on another VLAN.

Notes: About DHCP Protocol.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), described in RFC 1541, is an extension of the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP). DHCP allows hosts on a TCP/IP network to dynamically obtain basic configuration information. When a DHCP client starts, it broadcasts a DHCP Request packet, looking for DHCP servers. DHCP servers respond to this packet with a DHCP Response packet. The client then chooses a server to obtain TCP/IP configuration information, such as its own IP address. Since DHCP uses broadcast mechanism, a DHCP server and its client must physically reside on the same subnet. However, it's not practical to have one DHCP server on every subnet; in fact in many cases, DHCP/BOOTP clients and their associated DHCP/BOOTP server(s) do not reside on the same IP network or subnet. In such cases, a third-party agent is required to transfer BOOTP messages between clients and servers. BOOTP/DHCP Relay, described in RFC 1542, enables a host to use a BOOTP or DHCP server to obtain basic TCP/IP configuration information, even if the servers do not reside on the local subnet. When a Intelligent Switch with BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent receives a DHCP Request packet destined for a BOOTP/DHCP server, it inserts its own IP address into the DHCP Request packet so the server knows the subnet where the client is located. Then, depending on the configuration setup, the switch either 1) Forwards the packet to a specific server as defined in the switch configuration using unicast routing, or 2) Broadcasts the DHCP Request again to another directly attached IP subnet specified in the switch configuration for the receiving IP subnet.
When the DHCP server receives the DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP client from its scope in the DHCP client's subnet, and sends a DHCP Response back to the DHCP Relay Agent. The DHCP Relay Agent then broadcasts this DHCP Response packet received from the DHCP server to the appropriate client.

  • Ping

If you select Ping from the "IP Networking" screen, a Ping screen appears.
You can set the following items for the ping operation:
- The IP address of the host you want to ping
- The packet count number (from 1 to 999, or 0 for an infinite packet count)
- The packet size (from 0 to 1500)
- The timeout value (from 0 to 999)

Highlight the items and press Enter, then you set each item in the screen. After all the items are set, you can press Esc to start the ping operation.

  • Bridging

Lets you view and change the aging period for a MAC address. If you select Bridging from the Advanced Management screen, the Bridging Parameters screen appears.

a). To change the aging time, highlight Aging Time (seconds) and press Enter. A prompt will ask you to enter a bridge aging period, in seconds. Enter a new aging period and press the Enter key. Enter 0 for no aging.
b). To change the flood limit for all ports, highlight Flood Limit for All ports (packets/sec). The following prompt asks you to set flood limit (packets per second) or unlimited. Select [Set Flood Limit] and enter a new flood limit. Or, you may select [Unlimited] to disable the flooding limit function for unknown Mac address packets.

Notes:
1. Aging: Aging is an operation for the switch to maintain its learning table. If a network device does not send any packet in the aging time, its Mac address entry in the learning table will be removed. This operation is called aging.
2. Flooding: Whenever a packet is sent to a switch, the switch will try to find the destination port of the packet through looking it up in the learning table. Then forward it. If the DA (destination Mac address) of the packet cannot be found in the learning table, the switch will forward it to every port. This operation of a switch is called flooding. These flooding packets may cause unnecessary traffic in the network.

  • Static Filtering

Lets you view, add, delete, or search all source or destination addresses to be filtered. If you select Static Filtering from the Advanced Management screen, the Static Filtering screen appears.

The "Out-Filters" function will filter out those packets with the source/destination addresses in the out-filters table, i.e. these packets will not be forwarded by the switch.

The "In-Filters" function will filter in those packets with the MAC addresses in the in-filters table, i.e. these packets will be always forwarded by the port of the switch. This filter-in function is binding on each port. If you set the MAC address learning function of the connection port to "No MAC Learning" in the "Port Perspective" of "L2 Switching Database" in Advanced Management, only those MAC addresses in the in-filters table for the port will be forwarded by the port.

You can highlight one of these items and press Enter. A MAC address table will appear.
a). Add a MAC address: Hold down the Shift key and press + to add a specific MAC address to be filtered.
b). Delete a MAC address: Press "-" to delete a specific MAC address from being filtered. There is no precautionary message that appears before you delete a MAC address. Therefore, be sure you want to delete the address before doing so.
c). Search a MAC address: Press S to search through the list of MAC addresses in the static filtering database.

  • Spanning Tree

The Spanning Tree function can be used to prevent network loops and to provide backup links with another network device. It can ensure that only one route exists between any two stations on the network.
(Note: Whenever a network connection configuration is changed, the new connection will start to work in about 30 seconds if spanning tree is enabled. This is the spanning tree re-configuration time.)

This function lets you view and change parameters relating to the spanning tree protocol. If you select Spanning Tree from the Advanced Management screen, the Spanning Tree Protocol screen appears.

  • Spanning Tree Configurations



If you highlight Spanning Tree Configurations in the Spanning Tree Protocol screen and press the Enter key, a Spanning Tree Protocol Configuration screen appears. The top half of this screen displays read-only values. The bottom half, starting with Spanning Tree Protocol, is user configurable. Highlight a field, then press Enter to change the value. When you finish, press the Esc key until you return to the desired screen.
Note:

1. Bridge Priority: Bridge priority is for selecting the root device, root port and designated port. The device with the highest priority (lowest value) becomes the STA root device. If all devices have the same priority then the device with the lowest MAC address becomes the root device.
2. Hello Time: The time interval for root device to transmit a spanning tree configuration message.

  • Spanning Tree Port States

If you highlight Spanning Tree Port States in the Spanning Tree Protocol screen and press the Enter key, a Spanning Tree Port States screen appears. This screen displays read-only values. When you finish, press the Esc key until you return to the desired screen.
If you want to change the administration status, highlight the port that you want to change and press Enter. You can enable or disable the selected port - Up for enable and Down for disable.

  • Spanning Tree Path Cost

If you highlight Spanning Tree Path Costs in the Spanning Tree Protocol screen and press the Enter

key, a Spanning Tree Path Costs screen appears.
If you want to change the spanning tree path cost, highlight the port that you want to change and press Enter. Enter the new path cost in the prompt screen and press Enter. After completing the modification, press Esc to return to the last screen.

Path Cost (0 – 65535): It is used to determine the best path between devices if looping happens. Lower values will be forwarded and should be assigned to ports with fast connections. Higher values will be blocked and should be assigned to ports with slow connections. The suggestion values are 100(50~600) for 10M, 19(10~60) for 100M and 4(3~10) for 1000M connections.

  • Spanning Tree Port Priorities

If you highlight Spanning Tree Port Priorities in the Spanning Tree Protocol screen and press the Enter key, a Spanning Tree Port Priorities screen appears.
If you want to change the spanning tree path priorities, highlight the port that you want to change and press Enter. Enter the new path priorities in the prompt screen and press Enter. The value is from 0 to 255 and a low value gives the port a greater likelihood of becoming a Root port. After completing the modification, press Esc to back to last screen.

Port Priority (0-255): If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority (lowest value) will be forwarded when looping happens. If more than one port has the same highest priority then the port with the lowest port number will be forwarded.

  • SNMP

SNMP lets you view and change all SNMP-related information. If you select SNMP from the Advanced Management screen, the SNMP Configurations screen appears.
This switch supports SNMP agent function and you can configure SNMP settings (community name, trap host, trap events,…) here. If you want to change the configuration, highlight the item that you want to change and press Enter. Enter the new setting for the item in the prompt screen and press Enter. After completing the change, press Esc to leave.

  • Other Protocols

You can enable / disable GVRP and IGMP protocols here. The GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) protocol can handle the VLAN activity inside the switch and between switches. The IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) protocol can handle IP multicast activity in the network. This switch supports IGMP Snooping operation for IP multicast packets filtering and forwarding.

If you want to change the configuration, highlight the item that you want to change and press Enter.

GVRP: Enable - enable GVRP operation
Disable - disable GVRP operation
IGMP: Disable - disable IGMP operation
Passive - Passively snooping on the IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast Routers and IP Multicast host groups to learn IP Multicast group members
Active - Actively sending IGMP Query messages to solicit IP Multicast group members
Concentration – For IGMP snooping operation in concentration VLAN configuration (every port is VLAN-grouped with some common port and not VLAN-grouped with the other ports.)

Select the new setting for the item from the prompt screen and press Enter. After completing the change, press Esc to leave.

Notes: GVRP Protocol
In addition to network management tools that allow network administrators to statically add and delete VLAN member ports, the Intelligent Switch supports GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP). GVRP supports the dynamic registration of VLAN port members within a switch and across multiple switches. In addition to dynamically updating registration entries within a switch, GVRP is used to communicate VLAN registration information to other VLAN-aware switches, so that members of a VLAN can cover a wide span of switches in a network. GVRP allows both VLAN-aware workstations and the Intelligent Switch to issue and revoke VLAN memberships. Users are able to VLAN-aware the Intelligent Switch register and propagate VLAN membership to all ports that are part of the active topology of the VLAN.

Notes: IGMP Protocol (IGMP Snooping and IP Multicast Filtering)
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) runs between hosts and their neighboring multicast routers. The protocol's mechanisms allow a host to inform its local router that it wants to receive transmissions addressed to a specific multicast group. Routers periodically query the LAN to determine if known group members are still active. If there is more than one router on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of the routers is elected "querier" and assumes the responsibility of querying the LAN for group members. Based on the group membership information learned from the IGMP, a router can determine which (if any) multicast traffic needs to be forwarded to each of its "leaf" subnetworks. Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol, to support IP multicasting across the Internet. IGMP provides the final step in an IP multicast packet delivery service since it is only concerned with the forwarding of multicast traffic from the local router to group members on directly attached subnetworks. The Intelligent Switch supports IP Multicast Filtering by 1) Passively snooping on the IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast Routers and IP Multicast host groups to learn IP Multicast group members, and 2) Actively sending IGMP Query messages to solicit IP Multicast group members.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network's performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing multicast group hosts members and routers instead of flooding to all ports in the subnet (VLAN). The Intelligent Switch with IP multicast filtering/switching capability not only passively monitors IGMP Query and Report messages, DVMRP Probe messages, PIM, and MOSPF Hello messages; they also actively send IGMP Query messages to learn locations of multicast routers and member hosts in multicast groups within each VLAN. Note, however, IGMP neither alters nor routes any IP multicast packets. Since IGMP is not concerned with the delivery of IP multicast packets across subnetworks, an external IP multicast router is needed if IP multicast packets have to be routed across different subnetworks.

  • Port Trunking

Three port trunking connections are supported – two connections for 10/100M ports, one connection for gigabit ports if your model has gigabit ports. It is port-based manually set.

Here is the configuration screen. The switch treats these trunking connection ports as one connection. You can select one of the trunking and then select the ports for the trunking connection.

Here is an example for trunking configuration for 24+2G model.
1. Select one of the trunk connections and the following screen will appear.

2. Select the port range and select/remove the port to/from the trunk with Enter key. Four 10/100Mbps ports for a trunking connection maximum.
3. The following screen is an example after configuration.

If your switch is the 24+2G model and you want to use the two gigabit ports for a trunking connection, please select “Trunk 29”. Then select Port 25, 26 for this trunking connection. Its bandwidth is up to 4Gbps for the gigabit ports trunking.

  • Port Mirroring

Using Port Mirroring from the Advanced Management screen, you can mirror one port to another port for network traffic monitoring. From the Advanced Management screen, highlight Port Mirroring and press the Enter key. The screen appears.

a). Highlight one index and press Enter. The screen will appear.
b). Highlight the “Mirror To” and press Enter. Select the port that will be mirrored to.
c). Highlight the "Mirror From" and press Enter. Select the mirrored port from the port list and press Enter.
d). Highlight the "Mirror Mode" and press Enter. Select the mirror mode (Receive / Transmit) and press Enter. (You can mirror the receive or transmit packets only but not both in the switch.)
Notes: The mirror port number that you see in your console may be different from the screen shown in the manual. Please do it according to the port number shown on your screen.

  • QoS Setup

QoS (Quality of Service) is a very important issue for network devices due to the range of data transferred – phone call, audio, video, web business, email, file transfer, web access and so on. Different data types have different requests about delay, throughput and reliability on packet transfer. The network administrators should know about their network applications and the requests for these applications. Then they can configure this switch to meet these requests. When congestion happens on some ports of the switch, the QoS operation can transfer packets with different priorities, different drop rates, different bandwidth allocations for different requests of packets.

This switch supports 4 priority queues on each 10/100Mbps ports and 8 priority queues on the gigabit port if your model has it. This switch also support 2 classes of drop rates with WRED (Weighted Random Early Detection) logic that you can configure. You can configure the priority and drop rate for the priority values in VLAN tag and ToS of IP packet. You can also configure the priority and drop rate for TCP/UDP logical service ports. You can configure the packet scheduling operation on each priority queue and the traffic rate on each port with the QoS function of the switch.

This section is a description about the QoS setting of the switch.
You can follow the entry for QoS setting. [ Advanced Management ] -> [ QoS ]. Main menu:

Menu

Description

Global Setting

For general settings of the QoS functions in the switch.

Logical Port

Define the TCP/IP service logical ports operation – enable/disable, transmit priority, drop rate.

VLAN

Define the transmit priority and drop rate operation in the switch for each priority value in VLAN tag.

ToS

Define the transmit priority and drop rate operation in the switch for each priority value in ToS.

Profile

Define the QoS operation profiles for packet transmit scheduling of each priority queue on ports.

Port Configuration

Assign the operation profile for each physical port.

Rate Control

Setup the traffic rate allowed on each port.

  • Global Setting

Set the general configuration for the QoS operation.

1. QoS Status: Enable / Disable. This function can enable or disable the switch QoS function.

2. DiffServ Expedite Forwarding: Enable / Disable. This function can enable or disable the DiffServ EF function on the switch. This switch can map IETF DifferServ classes to its priority classes and transfer DiffServ packets with the following queue mapping.

Tx Queues

P3

P2

P1

P0

IETF

NM+EF

AF0

AF1

BE0


Note: DiffServ" is the abbreviation of "Differentiated Service". Differentiated Service provides a simple and coarse method of classifying services of various applications. Expedited Forwarding (EF) has a single codepoint (DiffServ value). EF minimizes delay and jitter and provides the highest level of aggregate quality of service. Any traffic that exceeds a set traffic limit may be discarded. The simplicity of DiffServ to prioritize traffic belies its flexibility and power. When DiffServ uses specific application types to identify and classify constant-bit-rate traffic, it will be possible to establish well-defined aggregate flows that may be directed to fixed bandwidth pipes. As a result, you could share resources efficiently and still provide guaranteed service.

3. ToS/VLAN Tag Preference: Select the preference priority information in packets – priority in ToS or priority in VLAN tag. ToS is the abbreviation of "Type of Service” and it is an 8-bit field in IP packet. Here is its definition.
Bit 0-2: Precedence. This 3 bits (value 0~7) indicate the priority of the IP packet.
Bit 3: Delay. If this bit is set (1), it requires low delay.
Bit 4: Throughput. If this bit is set (1), it requires high throughput.
Bit 5: Reliability. If this bit is set (1), it requires high reliability.
Bit 6-7: Unused.
The content of ToS is set by the application on the network.

4. ToS for Xmit: You can select the bit field in ToS for transmit priority mapping. [7:5] is Bit 0-2 (Precedence) of ToS. [4:2] is Bit 3-5 (Delay/ Throughput/Reliability) of ToS.

5. ToS for Drop: You can select the bit field in ToS for drop priority mapping. [7:5] uses Bit 0-2 (Precedence) of ToS. [4:2] uses Bit 3-5 (Delay / Throughput / Reliability) of ToS.

6. WRED Drop Priority Setting: WRED is the abbreviation of "Weighted Random Early Detection/Discard". WRED is a congestion avoidance mechanism. When a packet belonging to a queue for which WRED is enabled arrives, some actions take place. The Average Queue Size (AQS) is calculated. If the AQS is less than the minimum WRED threshold, the packet is enqueued. Otherwise, the packet is dropped or enqueued accordingly to the Drop Percentage of the packet within a WRED class. The setting of WRED parameters can influence this behavior. It is possible to set WRED parameters for each aggregate of packets (Class).
You can define two WRED drop rates (Low Drop Rate and High Drop Rate). There are three levels for each drop rate setting.
Level 1 defines the drop percentage when the queue is 75% full.
Level 2 defines the drop percentage when the queue is 87.5% full.
Level 3 defines the drop percentage when the queue is 100% full. It is always 100% drop because the queue is already full.

  • Logical Port

You can configure the QoS operation of different TCP/IP logical (service) ports in the switch with this function. Three types of logical ports can be configured in this function.

1. User-Defined Port: This switch allows 8 user-defined TCP/IP logical ports for QoS operation. Select one of them (for example, 0) and assign a TCP/IP port number, you can do the following QoS settings on this TCP/IP logical port.
1) Enable / Disable it.
2) Configure its drop rate to high drop rate or low drop rate.
3) Configure its transmit priority to 0 ~ 7.
2. Well-Known Port: In "Well-Known Port", you can do QoS configuration for some well-known TCP/IP ports. Up to 8 well-known ports can be set in the switch. Select one of them. (For example, 0) and you can do the following QoS settings on this TCP/IP logical port.
1) Enable / Disable it.
2) Configure its drop rate to high drop rate or low drop rate.
3) Configure its transmit priority to 0 ~ 7.

Well-Known Port

Service

Well-Known Port

Service

23

Telnet

111

SUN rpc

512

TCP/UDP

22555

IP phone call

6000

XWIN

22

SSH

443

HTTP

554

RTSP

3. Range Port: In "Range Logical Port", you can define the drop priority and transmit priority for some range of TCP/IP logical ports.

  • VLAN

You can configure the QoS operation – drop priority and transmit priority for each priority value in VLAN tag. Select one of them and you can configure the QoS configuration of this priority.

  • ToS

You can configure the QoS operation – drop priority and transmit priority for each priority value in ToS. Select one of them and you can configure the QoS configuration of this priority. You can select using Bit0-2 or Bit3-5 of ToS for the transmit priority and drop the priority setting with “General” of the QoS configuration.

  • Profile

There are four basic QoS scheduling operations for this switch.
1. Strict Priority (SP) is for the highest priority queue only in the switch. If there is only one frame in the queue with SP, it will be transmitted first. The SP class is used for IETF expedited forwarding (EF), where performance guarantees are required. The SP traffic should be either policed or implicitly bounded (e.g. if the traffic of the queue with SP is very light and predictable patterned).
2. Delay Bound is a delay assurance algorithm of the switch. It can dynamically adjust its scheduling and dropping criteria, guided by the queue occupancies and the due dates of their head-of-line (HOL) frames. As a result, we assure latency bounds for all admitted frames with high confidence.
3. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) allows for weighting priority queues for different transmit bandwidth allocation for these queues. In WFQ mode frame latency is assured.
4. Best Effort (BE) mode allows for a queue to only receive bandwidth when none of the other classes have any traffic to offer. It is used for non-essential traffic because we provide no assurances about BE performance.

This switch supports four scheduling configurations for each physical port on different priority queues (4 priority queues on 10/100M ports, 8 priority queues on gigabit port for 24+2G models).

10/100M Port
P3
P2
P1
P0
Gigabit Port
P7
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
P0
Option 1

Delay Bound

Best Effort

Option 2

Strict Priority
Delay Bound
Best Effort
Option 3
Strict Priority
Weighted Fair Queuing
Option 4

Weighted Fair Queuing

There are 10 profiles in the configuration menu. The following is the mapping between the 10 profiles and the four scheduling configurations.

Strict Priority
Delay Bound
WFQ Setting (default)
 
Profile 1
Disable
Enable
50%, 25%, 25%, 0%
Option 1
Profile 2
Enable
Enable
50%, 25%, 25%, 0%
Option 2
Profile 3
Enable
Disable
50%, 25%, 12.5%, 12.5%
Option 3
Profile 4
Disable
Disable
50%, 25%, 12.5%, 12.5%
Option 4
Profile 5
Disable
Enable
75%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 0%
Option 1
Profile 6
Enable
Enable
75%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 0%
Option 2
Profile 7
Enable
Disable
75%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 6.25%
Option 3
Profile 8
Disable
Disable
75%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 6.25%
Option 4
Profile 9
Enable
Enable
25%, 50%, 25%, 0%
Option 2

Profile 10

Enable
Disable
25%, 50%, 12.5%, 12.5%
Option 3

You can configure the WFQ setting in each profile and select four of the ten profiles to be the active profiles for the scheduling operation on each port of the switch.

For the profile setting, you have to select Megabit Ports Profile or Gigabit Ports Profile first.

We select the Megabit Profile here. You can define the content of QoS profiles for megabit ports here. There are 10 different profiles and only four of them could be the active profiles for QoS control in the switch. Now, we open the 01 profile.

1. Port Using This Profile: Shows the port using this profile.
2. Strict Priority: Shows the Strict Priority setting of this profile.
3. Delay Sensitive Application: Shows the Delay Bound setting of the profile.
4. Profile Name: The name of this profile. You can modify it.

5. Profile Status: The status (active / non-active) of this profile. You can modify it. This switch supports only four active profiles. If you enable this profile, this may cause some other active profile to be disabled by the switch.
6. Bandwidth Partition: In "Bandwidth Partitions" you can set the bandwidth allocation for the four transmit queues on ports for Weight Fair Queue operation.
7. QoS with Flow Control: The flow control operation on the port may conflict with the QoS operation because the flow control operation will pause the packets sending from the connected device to prevent packet lost when the port is busy. But this operation will break the QoS request from the application running on that device. In this case, the packets from ports whose flow control function is enabled will always be forwarded with the lowest priority during scheduling so that they will not be exposed to the WRED dropping scheme to prevent any packet dropping in the QoS operation. It can guarantee that no packets will be lost, but at the possible expense of minimum bandwidth or maximum delay assurance. If this function is enabled, it will force the QoS function to still work when the flow control is enabled. However, only the best effort traffics are not dropped. The high priority traffic is still transmitted first, but the packet may be dropped when the output port is highly congested.

  • Port Configuration

With this function, you can select the QoS operation profile for each physical port from the four active profiles. And you can see the fixed drop and transmit priority settings of the port here. If the QoS operation is set to port-based mode, these settings will be the QoS settings for the port.

  • Rate Control

With this function, you can set the traffic rate control for each physical port. (You can set the rate control for 10/100M ports only.) This switch supports 10 levels of rate control from line speed. You select one of the ten levels to limit the traffic rate allowed on the ports. You can also select the traffic type for rate control: streaming or burst.

Note: If the "Delay Sensitive Application" option of any active profile is enabled, you will see an error message when you try to set the rate control. Please try to activate another profile with the "Delay Sensitive Application" option disabled because the Delay Bound scheduling operation conflicts with the rate control operation of the switch. We suggest that you use Profiles 3,4,7,8 as the active profiles for rate control operation because they are "Delay Sensitive Application" disabled.

 

  • File Transfer

You can upload or download the software running in the switch here. If you select File Transfer from the Advanced Management screen, the Software Upgrade screen appears.

You can do the files transfer with TFTP (through network connection) or Kermit (through console connection) protocols. Highlight the item and press Enter to start file transfer.

Note: The software file in the switch is a module design and you can download or upload them by one of the module files instead of the whole software. There are five module files transferable to or from the switch.
1. Software configuration file: This file contains the software configuration (VLAN, IP, Spanning Tree, …) settings of the switch.
2. Hardware configuration file: This file contains the hardware configuration of the switch. If the wrong hardware configuration is used then it may activate the switch “fail” indication.
3. Debug monitor file: This is for engineer debugging. Please ignore it.
4. Runtime file: This is the main code of the switch. It controls the software version of the switch.
5. Web browser file: This file contains the http interface html code.

1. Receive File Via TFTP
Before doing this operation, you have to put the file to the TFTP server and check the connection between the switch and the TFTP server by performing a ping operation first.Highlight "Receive File Via TFTP" and press Enter. The following screen will appear.

a). Highlight the "File Name" option and press Enter. Enter the file name and press Enter.
b). Highlight the "IP Address" option and press Enter. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server and press Enter.
c). Press Esc and confirm the file transfer (Yes or No).

2. Send File via TFTP
Before doing this operation, you have to check the connection between the switch and the TFTP server by a ping operation first.
Highlight "Send File via TFTP" and press Enter. Then select the file name and set the IP address of the TFTP server. Press Esc to confirm the file transfer (Yes or No). This operation can get the file from the switch to the TFTP server.

3. Receive File via Kermit

Before doing this operation, you have to start the terminal program and complete the console connection first.
1. Highlight "Receive File Via Kermit" and press Enter. Then select Yes or No to confirm the file transfer via Kermit.
2. Start the file transfer (send) operation in the terminal program with Kermit protocol.

4. Send File Via Kermit

Before doing this operation, you have to start the terminal program and complete the console connection first.
1. Highlight "Send File Via Kermit" and press Enter. The following screen will appear.
2. Select the file you want to transfer and press Enter. Then select Yes or No to confirm the file transfer via Kermit.
3. Start the file transfer (receive) operation in the terminal program with Kermit protocol.

3.2.4 Other Functions in the Main Menu

  • Logout

You can logout from the switch with this function.

  • Save Setting

You can save the settings to flash chip with this function. All the settings in the configuring process will take effect immediately. But they will be lost once power is turned off. If you want to save them, please come to this function and save them to flash.

  • Restore Default Settings

If you want to go back to the default settings of the switch, you may use this function to do it. It will clear current settings and restore them to the Default State of the switch. After restoring default settings, the switch will reboot.

  • Reboot

You can reboot the switch with this function.

3.3 Configure the Intelligent Switch by Web Browser

The Intelligent Switch provides a web-browser interface for configuration/ management purposes. After the IP address of the Intelligent Switch has been assigned through the console interface, you can connect to the Intelligent Switch with web-browser for configuration or management. (Please refer to "Assigning an IP Address to the Intelligent Switch" in Section 3.1 for IP address assigning.)

3.3.1 Logging on to the Intelligent Switch

Follow these steps to start the web-browser configuration/management.
1. Start the Web-Browser first (MS IE 4.0 / Netscape 4.7 or above w/ 800x600 screen resolution is suggested,)
2. Enter "http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/" as the web address. (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the IP address of the Intelligent Switch) And the login screen will appear.

3. Input the password (the factory default is "123456" for "admin").
Note: You may change the password after you login to the Intelligent Switch.
4. If the password is accepted, the homepage of the Intelligent Switch will appear.

3.3.2 Performing Basic Management Activities

You can perform basic configuration/management with the "Basic Setup" button in the homepage. This is almost the same as the "Basic Management" function in the console interface. Please refer to Section 3.2.2 for the details of the basic management. (Here is a sample. Please refer to your Intelligent Switch. They are similar.)


3.3.3 Performing Advanced Management Activities

You can perform advanced configuration/management with the "Advanced Setup" button in the homepage. This is almost the same as the "Advanced Management" function in the console interface. Please refer to Section 3.2.2 for the details of the advanced management.

3.3.4 File Transfer, Reboot, Logout and Save Setting

You can do these functions in the "File" button. Please complete the operation step by step in the web-browser. This is almost the same as the functions in the console interface. Please refer to Section 3.2.3 for the details of these functions.

Chapter 4
SNMP and RMON Management

4.1 Overview

RMON is an abbreviation for the Remote Monitoring MIB (Management Information Base). RMON is a system defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) document RFC 1757, which defines how networks can be monitored remotely.

  • RMONs typically consist of two components: an RMON probe and a management workstation:
    The RMON probe is an intelligent device or software agent that continually collects statistics about a LAN segment or VLAN. TheRMON probe transfers the collected data to a management workstation on request or when a predefined threshold is reached.
  • The management workstation collects the statistics that the RMON probe gathers. The workstation can reside on the same network as the probe, or it can have an in-band or out-of-band connection to the probe.

The Intelligent Switch provides RMON capabilities that allow network administrators to set parameters and view statistical counters defined in MIB-II, Bridge MIB, and RMON MIB. RMON activities are performed at a Network Management Station running an SNMP network management application with graphical user interface.

4.2 SNMP Agent and MIB-2 (RFC1213)

The SNMP Agent running on the switch manager CPU is responsible for:

  • Retrieving MIB counters from various layers of software modules according to the SNMP GET/GET NEXT frame messages.
  • Setting MIB variables according to the SNMP SET frame message.
  • Generating an SNMP TRAP frame message to the Network Management Station if the threshold of a certain MIB counter is reached or if other trap conditions (such as the following) are met:
    - Warm start
    - Cold start
    - Link up
    - Link down
    - Authentication failure
    - Rising alarm
    - Falling alarm
    - Topology change

MIB-2 defines a set of manageable objects in various layers of the TCP/IP protocol suites. MIB-2 covers all manageable objects from layer 1 to layer 4 and, as a result, is the major SNMP MIB supported by all vendors in the networking industry. The Intelligent Switch supports a complete implementation of SNMP Agent and MIB-2.

4.3 RMON MIB (RFC 1757) and Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)

The Intelligent Switch provides hardware-based RMON counters in the switch chipset. The switch manager CPU polls these counters periodically to collect the statistics in a format that complies with the RMON MIB definition.

4.3.1 RMON Group Supported

The Intelligent Switch supports the following RMON MIB groups defined in RFC1757:

  • RMON Statistics Group - maintains utilization and error statistics for the switch port being monitored.
  • RMON History Group - gathers and stores periodic statistical samples from the previous Statistics Group.
  • RMON Alarm Group - allows a network administrator to define alarm thresholds for any MIB variable. An alarm can be associated with Low Threshold, High Threshold, or both. A trigger can activate an alarm when the value of a specific MIB variable exceeds a threshold, falls below a threshold, or exceeds or falls below a threshold.
  • RMON Event Group - allows a network administrator to define actions based on alarms. SNMP Traps are generated when RMON Alarms are triggered. The action taken in the Network Management Station depends on the specific network management application.

4.3.2 Bridge Group Supported

The Intelligent Switch supports the following four groups of Bridge MIB (RFC1493):

  • The dot1dBase Group - a mandatory group that contains the objects applicable to all types of bridges.
  • The dot1dStp Group - contains the objects that denote the bridge's state with respect to the Spanning Tree Protocol. If a node does not implement the Spanning Tree Protocol, this group will not be implemented. This group is applicable to any transparent only, source route, or SRT bridge that implements the Spanning Tree Protocol.
  • The dot1dTp Group - contains objects that describe the entity's transparent bridging status. This group is applicable to transparent operation only and SRT bridges.
  • The dot1dStatic Group - contains objects that describe the entity's destination-address filtering status. This group is applicable to any type of bridge that performs destination-address filtering.
  • Chapter 5
    Configure the Network Connection

    5.1 Connecting Devices to Intelligent Switch

    [ Connection Guidelines: ]

    • Use Category 3 or 5 twisted-pair Ethernet cable when connecting 10BaseT devices to the Intelligent Switch and up to 100 meters.
    • Use Category 5 twisted-pair Ethernet cable when connecting 100BaseTX devices to the Intelligent Switch and up to 100 meters.
    • For 100BaseFX connection, it supports up to 2KM for multi-mode transceiver and up to 25~30KM for single-mode transceiver w/ single-mode cable.
    • For 1000BaseSX connection, it supports up to 550 meters.
    • For 1000BaseLX connection, it supports up to 8~10KM.
    • For 1000BaseTX connection, it supports up to 100 meters with Cat 5 cable. (Cat.5e is suggested for 1000TX connection.)

    5.2 Trunking to Another Ethernet Switch

    There could be two/three trunk connections on the Intelligent Switch.
    1. Please setup the trunk configuration of the Intelligent Switch (refer to Section 3) from the Telnet/Console/Browser/SNMP management interface first.
    2. Connect from the trunking ports of the Intelligent Switch to the trunking ports of another switch.
    The following figure is an example of trunk connection from the Intelligent Switch. Because the UTP ports of the switch are MDIX ports, you may need to use "Crossover" Cable for the trunking connection. (Notes: If the TX ports of your model support Auto-MDIX function, you can use straight-through cables for the trunking connection. Please check the specification of your model.)

    5.3 Connecting to Another Ethernet Switch/Hub (Non-Trunking)

    The Intelligent Switch can be connected to existing 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps hubs/switches. The switch to switch/hub connection guidelines are shown as follows:
    If connecting from MDIX port of the switch to MDI port of another hub/switch then Straight-Through cable is OK for this connection.

    If connecting from MDIX port of the switch to MDIX port of another hub/switch, Crossover cable is needed for such a connection. (Notes: If the TX ports of your model support Auto-MDIX function, you can use straight-through cables for this connection. Please check the spec of your model.)

    5.4 Application

    An Ethernet switch can be used to overcome the hub to hub connectivity limitations as well as improve overall network performance. The switch makes intelligent decisions about where to send network traffic based on the destination address of the packet. As a result, the switch can significantly reduce unnecessary traffic.
    The example below demonstrates the switch’s ability to segment the network. The number of nodes on each segment is reduced, thereby minimizing network contention (collisions) and boosting the available bandwidth per port.
    The user can set up VLAN of the Intelligent Switch for network management and can also set up Trunk connection of the Intelligent Switch for faster trunk connection between switches. The administrator can manage the network connection by using Telnet / Console / Web-Browser / NMS of the Intelligent Switch to monitor the network.
    The following figure is an application example of a 24+2G model Intelligent Switch.

    Chapter 6
    LEDs Conditions Defined

    The Intelligent Switch LEDs provide useful information about the switch and the status of all individual ports.

    LED
    STATUS
    CONDITION
    Power
    ON
    The Intelligent Switch is receiving power.
    *Fault
    ON
    It will be ON when booting and go OFF when running. If it is steady ON when running, the switch is faulty.(*Some models do not have this LED.)
    Link / Act
    ON

    Port has established a valid link.
    Flashing
    Data packets being received or sent.
    Green
    The connection is 100Mbps.
    Yellow
    The connection is 10Mbps.
    FDX/*Col
    ON
    The connection is Full Duplex.
    Flashing
    Packet collisions happen.
    Note: For the Fully Modularized Model, the Link/Act LED is green color only. The speed display (Green:100M/Yellow:10M) is shown on the TX module.

    ! Important Note: If there are 100BaseFX ports on the switch, please always set the operation speed and operation mode of the 100BaseFX ports to 100Mbps and full duplex mode. The 100BaseFX ports will fail to work if they are set to 10Mbps or half-duplex or Auto.

    Chapter 7
    Add/Remove Module

    7.1 For non-fully modularized models

    This model supports one 1/2-port 100BaseFX modules (on the front panel) and two 1-port gigabit TX/SX/LX modules (on the rear panel for 24+2G model). Because this switch does not support hot-swap function, please turn off the switch before adding or removing module to/from the switch.

    -- Module at Front Side --

    Adding a 100BaseFX module on the front panel will disable Port 23/24 of UTP ports because they share the same port number. If there is one 100BaseFX port on the module, Port 24 of the UTP ports will be disabled and this 100BaseFX port becomes Port 24. If there are two 100BaseFX ports on the module, Ports 23 and 24 of the UTP ports will be disabled and these 100BaseFX ports become Ports 23 and 24.

    [ Adding Modules to the Switch on the Front Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the cover of the module slot.
    3. Remove the cover of the module slot.
    4. Follow the rails on both sides of the module slot to slide in the module slowly.
    5. Firmly insert the module to make sure it is mated securely with the connector of the switch.
    6. Tighten the screws to secure the module to the switch firmly.
    7. Power ON the switch.
    8. If 100FX modules are added, please configure these FX ports to 100/Full in the following steps: [Basic Management] -> [LAN port] -> [Speed & Flow Control] -> Select the port -> Set it to 100/Full.
    9. Connect network cables to the connectors on the module. If the connected devices are working, the Link/Act LED will be ON.
    Note: We suggest you to keep the removed module slot covers. They can be used when the modules are removed in the future.

    [ Remove Modules from the Switch on the Front Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the module.
    3. Remove the module slowly from the module slot.
    4. Install the module cover and secure it to the switch by tightening the screws.
    5. Power ON the switch.

    -- Modules at Rear Side (for 24+2G model) --

    [ Adding Modules to the Switch on the Rear Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the cover on the module slot.
    3. Remove the cover on the module slot.
    4. Follow the rails on both sides of the module slot to slide in the module slowly.
    5. Firmly insert the module to make sure it is mated securely with the connector in the switch.
    6. Tighten the screws to secure the module to the switch.
    7. Power ON the switch.
    8. Connect network cables to the connectors on the module. If the connected devices are working, the Link/Act LED will be ON.
    Note: We suggest you to keep the removed module slot covers. They can be used when the modules are removed in the future.

    [ Remove Modules from the Switch on the Rear Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the module.
    3. Remove the module slowly from the module slot.
    4. Install the module cover and secure it to the switch by tightening the screws.
    5. Power ON the switch.

    7.2 For fully modularized models

    This model supports three 8-port 10/100Mbps TX/FX modules (on the front panel) and two 1-port gigabit TX/SX/LX modules (on the rear panel for 24+2G model). Because this switch does not support hot-swap function, please turn off the switch before adding or removing module to/from the switch.

    -- Modules at Front Side --

    [ Adding Modules to the Switch on the Front Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. If the switch is rack-mounted, you have to remove the switch from the rack first.
    3. Loosen the screws of the cover on the module slot with a screwdriver. Two screws are located on the front side and one is on the bottom side.
    4. Remove the cover of the module slot.
    5. Follow the rails on both sides of the module slot to slide in the module slowly.
    6. Firmly insert the module to make sure it is mated securely with the connector in the switch.
    7. Tighten the screws to secure the module to the switch. Two screws are located on the front side and one is on the bottom side.
    8. If the switch is rack-mounted then install the switch back into the rack.
    9. Power ON the switch.
    10. If 100FX modules are added, please configure the FX ports to 100/Full by the following: [Basic Management] -> [LAN port] -> [Speed & Flow Control] -> Select the port -> Set it to 100/Full.
    11. Connect network cables to the connectors on the module. If the connected devices are working, the Link/Act LED will be ON.
    Note: We suggest you to keep the removed module slot covers. They can be used when the modules are removed in the future.

    [ Remove Modules from the Switch on the Front Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. If the switch is rack-mounted, you have to remove the switch from the rack first.
    3. Loosen the screws of the module with a screwdriver. Two screws are located on the front side and one is on the bottom side.
    4. Remove the module slowly from the module slot.
    5. Install the module cover and secure it to the switch by tightening the screws with a screwdriver. Two screws are located on the front side and one is on the bottom side.
    6. If the switch is rack-mounted then install the switch back into the rack.
    7. Power ON the switch.

    -- Modules at Rear Side (for 24+2G model) --

    [ Adding Modules to the Switch on the Rear Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the cover on the module slot.
    3. Remove the cover of the module slot.
    4. Follow the rails on both sides of the module slot to slide in the module slowly.
    5. Firmly insert the module to make sure it is mated securely with the connector in the switch.
    6. Tighten the screws to secure the module to the switch.
    7. Power ON the switch.
    8. Connect network cables to the connectors on the module. If the connected devices are working, the Link/Act LED will be ON.
    Note: We suggest you to keep the removed module slot covers. They can be used when the modules are removed in the future.

    [ Remove Modules from the Switch on the Rear Panel ]
    1. Turn off the switch first.
    2. Loosen the screws of the module.
    3. Remove the module slowly from the module slot.
    4. Install the module cover and secure it to the switch by tightening the screws.
    5. Power ON the switch.


    Chapter 8
    FAQ

    [ Q1 ] How can I configure the switch to isolate users connected on the switch so that they cannot send/ receive any packets to/from each other but all can still share one Internet connection?
    [ A ] You can configure the VLAN on the switch to “Concentration Mode” for this application. We use the Intelligent Switch and the Internet connection on Port 24 as an example. (All of the ports are untagged ports.)
    1. Create the following VLANs first.

    VLAN ID
    VLAN Name
    Ports in the VLAN
    2
    V2
    Port 1, 24
    3
    V3
    Port 2, 24
    4
    V4
    Port 3, 24
    ...............
    23
    V23
    Port 22, 24
    24
    V24
    Port 23, 24
    25
    V25
    Port 1, 2, 3, 4, . . ., 22, 23, 24

    2. Set the PVID of every port.

    Port 1
    PVID=2
    Port 2
    PVID=3
    Port 3
    PVID=4
    Port 4
    PVID=5
    Port 5
    PVID=2
    Port 6
    PVID=2
    Port 7
    PVID=8
    Port 8
    PVID=9
    Port 9
    PVID=10
    ................
    Port 22
    PVID=23
    Port 23
    PVID=24
    Port 24
    PVID=25
    When a Port is forwarding packets, it will check its VLAN configuration (whose VLAN ID = its PVID). If the destination ports are in the same VLAN group, the packets will be forwarded. Otherwise, the packets will be dropped.

    [ Q2 ] How can I limit the number of users on each connection port?
    [ A ] Please follow these steps to set the limit of the number of users for each port:
    1. [Advanced Management] -> [L2 Switching DataBase] -> [Port Perspective] -> [Per Port Mac Limit] -> Select the port -> [Set Learning Limit] -> Set the user number to limit the Mac learning number on the port.
    2. Go back to the main menu with Esc.
    3. The setting will take effect immediately. If you want to save it, go back to the main menu with Esc and select [Save Setting].

    [ Q3 ] How can I limit network port access?
    [ A ]Please follow these steps to set network port access:
    1. [Advanced Management] -> [L2 Switching DataBase] -> [Port Perspective] -> [Per Port Mac Limit] -> Select the port -> [No Mac Learning] to disable the Mac learning function on the port.
    2. Go back to the main menu with Esc.
    3. [Advanced Management] -> [Static Filtering] -> [Mac Address In-Filter] -> Select the port -> Add the Mac address of the user to the list.
    4. The setting will take effect immediately. If you want to save it, go back to the main menu with Esc and select [Save Setting].
    [ Q4 ] Why do the Up-Arrow and Down-Arrow keys fail to work on the console and Telnet connection?
    [ A ] Because your terminal program fails to send the correct code of these two keys, the Intelligent Switch cannot get the correct input from your keyboard. You may use "J" key instead of Down-Arrow key and use "K" key instead of Up-Arrow key in that case.
    [ Q5 ] Why does the 100Base FX port fail to work after adding a 100BaseFX module to my switch (some models support module expansion).
    [ a ] This problem could be caused by the configuration of the 100BaseFX port because FX port does not support auto-negotiation function. You have to configure the FX port to 100/Full manually. Please follow these steps to configure the FX port:
    [Basic Management] -> [LAN Port] -> [Speed & Flow Control] -> Select the port -> Select 100/F. Then save it. Because the port is configured to full duplex mode, its FDX LED will be ON even though no cable is connected. That is a correct display because the port is already forced to full duplex mode.

    [ Q6 ] What is the difference between tagged and untagged ports in VLAN setting? What is PVID?
    [ A ] Tag is a four-byte data added in the packet. It contains priority information and VLAN ID of the packet. If a packet has a tag inside, it can carry this information from this switch to another switch and can be handled according to the information in the tag between different network devices. This is how GVRP works between network devices.
    If a port in VLAN is set to untagged port, all the packets are sent out from the port without tags inside (untagged). If these packets are tagged when they come to the switch, the tag will be removed when they are transferred from this port. Because many network devices do not support tags in packets (untagged device), they cannot recognize tagged packets. In that case, you have to set their connection port to untagged.
    If a port in VLAN is set to tagged port, all the packets are sent out from the port with tags inside (tagged). If these packets are untagged when they come to the switch, a tag will be added when they are transferred from this port. In this case, it will use the PVID set on the ingress port as the VLAN ID in the added tag.
    PVID (Port VLAN ID) is the VLAN ID setting on an untagged port. When untagged packets come to the port, the switch will check the VLAN setting to determine whose VLAN ID is the same as PVID and decide to drop or forward the packets.

    [ Q7 ] Why does my network connection not work immediately when I add or change my network connection on the switch? It always delays 30 seconds and then starts to work.
    [ A ] You can check the spanning tree configuration first. If spanning tree is enabled, it will take about 30 seconds before any new connection starts to work because it will check the network configuration to prevent any looping from happening in the network first. This is a normal operation for spanning tree.

    [ Q8 ] What is flooding?
    [ A ] Flooding happens when packets come to the switch and the switch cannot find their DA (Destination Mac Address) in its Mac learning table. In this case, the switch will forward these packets to every port to find the destination network device. This operation is called flooding.

    [ Q9 ] Why is the traffic in the trunk connection not shared to every port when only several connections work between the switches?
    [ A ] For a DA-SA pair, its traffic is assigned to be transferred through one cable of the trunk only but not every cable. If only several connections work on the trunk connection then only part of the cable in the trunk is working. Because the traffic is not heavy in this case, part of the cable in the trunk is enough for the loading. If more DA-SA pairs are working in the trunk, they will be assigned to different cables to share the loading in the trunk. If there are many DA-SA connections in the trunk with quite random values, the traffic will be shared on every cable of the trunk smoothly. This can meet the request for a trunking connection. If any cable in the trunk is broken, the traffic in that cable will be transferred to another cable in the trunk and the traffic will not stop.

    [ Q10 ] How does this switch support QoS function?
    [ A ] With delay bounded, strict priority, and/or WFQ transmission scheduling, and WRED dropping schemes, the switch provides powerful QoS functions for various multimedia and mission-critical applications. Each port provides 4 transmission priorities (8 priorities per Gigabit port) and 2 levels of dropping precedence. Each packet is assigned a transmission priority and dropping precedence based on the physical port, VLAN priority field in a VLAN tagged frame, or the DS/TOS field and UDP/TCP logical port fields in IP packets.
    In general, the approach to quality of service assumes the offered traffic pattern is unknown, the incoming traffic is not policed or shaped, and the network manager knows his applications, such as voice, file transfer, or web browsing, and their relative importance. Then he can configure the switch to meet the QoS request of his applications.

    [ Q11 ] Why does the tagged port send out untagged packets?
    [ A ] It is not necessary to set the PVID for a tagged port. The PVID of a tagged port should remain as default VLAN ID 1. If you set the PVID of a tagged port to its VLAN ID, it will confuse the switch and cause the switch to send out untagged packets from the tagged port. If the port belongs to default VLAN, it will only send out untagged packets because default VLAN supports untagged only.

    [ Q12 ] Why is the connection not stable when set to half-duplex (e.g. 10M Hub)?
    [ A ] This is a compatibility problem. You may try to disable the flow control function of the port that is connected with the half-duplex device.

    A. Product Features/Specification

    A.1 Features

    • Prevents packet loss with back pressure and IEEE802.3x flow control
    • Web-based management provides the ability to manage the switch from any web browser
    • SNMP/Telnet interface delivers complete in-band management
    • Supports IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
    • Supports RMON agent
    • VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) with GVRP supports up to 128 groups
    • Supports IP Multicasting through IGMP Snooping
    • Provides 4-level transmit priorities, 2-level drop precedence on each port and different transmit scheduling schemes for QoS request. The QoS operation can refer to Port-Based, Tag-Base, DS/ToS or IP logical port settings of packets.
    • Supports port trunking and load sharing for high bandwidth links between switches
    • Supports flooding control
    • Supports static and dynamic MAC address limit function

    A.2 Specification

    [ Basic Characteristics ]

    Access Method

    CSMA/CD

    Communication Mode

    Full / Half-duplex

    Ports

    Depending on your models – 24-only or 24+2G

    Console Port

    DB9 connector for RS-232 connection, with factory default
    [Baud Rate: 115200, Data Bits: 8, Parity Bits: None, Stop Bit: 1,
    Flow Control: None.]

    Dimension

    24+2G model: 17.34 x 10 x 1.74 in. (440 x 254 x 44mm)
    24-only model: 17.34 x 6.78 x 1.74 in. (440 x 172 x 44mm)

    MDI / MDIX Select

    Fully Modularized Model: Auto Detect
    Non-Fully Modularized Model: MDIX only

    Input Power

    100~240VAC, 50/60 Hz

    Filter & Forwarding Rate

    Full line speed

    Transmission method

    Store-and-forward

    Address Table

    12K entries

    Packet Buffer

    2M bytes

    Flow Control

    Back pressure for half-duplex,
    IEEE802.3x for full duplex

    LED Display

    Per Port: Link/Act, FDX/Col
    Per Device: Power, Fault

    Operation Temperature

    Standard Operating: 0 to 50ºC

    Humidity

    5% to 95% (Non-condensing)


    [ Management Support ]

    System Configuration Out-band: console interface
    In-band: Telnet/Web Browser/SNMP interface
    Management Agent SNMP support: MIB II , Bridge MIB , RMON MIB
    Spanning Tree Algorithm IEEE 802.1D
    VLAN Function Port-Base/802.1Q-Tagged, allows up to 128 VLANs in one switch
    Trunk Function 24+2G model: Three trunk connections allowed

    24-only model: Two trunk connections allowed
    IGMP IP Multicast Filtering by passively snooping on the IGMP Query
    Quality of Service (QoS) Provides 4-level transmit priorities, 2-level drop precedence on each port Supports Strict Priority, Delay Bound, Weighted Fair Queue and Best Effort – 4 different transmit scheduling schemesRefer to Port-Based, Tag-Base, DS/ToS or IP logical port settings of packets.
    Port Security Limits number of MAC addresses learned per port Static MAC addresses stay in the filtering table Static and dynamic MAC address limit
    Internetworking Protocols Bridging: 802.1D Spanning Tree
    802.1P/Q - GARP/GVRP
    Internal Routing: RIP / RIP-2 / DHCP-Relay
    ICMP Router Discovery Message
    IP Multicast; IGMP Snooping
    IP Multicast Packet Filtering
    Maximum of 128 VLANs and IP multicast sessions
    Network Management One RS232 port as local control console
    Telnet remote control console
    SNMP agent: MIB-2 (RFC 1213)
    Bridge MIB (RFC1493)
    RMON MIB (RFC1757) - statistics, history, alarmsand events
    VLAN MIB (802.1Q)
    Web browser support based on HTTP server and CGI parser
    Software Update TFTP/Kermit software-upgrade capability

    B. Compliance

    EMI Certification

    FCC Class A Certification (USA) {tc "FCC Class A Certification (USA)"}
    Warning: This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause interference to radio communications. It has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the user, at his own expense, will be required to take whatever measures are required to correct the interference.

    CE Mark Declaration of Conformance for EMI and Safety (EEC) {tc "CE Mark Declaration of Conformance for EMI and Safety (EEC) "}
    This is to certify that this product complies with ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN45014.
    It conforms to the following specifications:

    EMC: EN55022 (1988) / CISPR-22 (1985)
    class A
    EN60555-2 (1995)
    class A
    EN60555-3
    IEC1000-4-2 (1995)
    4kV CD, 8kV AD
    IEC1000-4-3 (1995)
    3V/m
    IEC1000-4-4 (1995)
    1kV - (power line), 0.5kV - (signal line)

    This product complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC.

    Warning! Do not plug a phone jack connector in the RJ-45 port. This may damage this device.